Gerard Kempen's Website

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1. Design criteria for a human grammatical coding system

1.1 Experimental studies

van de Velde, Maartje; Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2015). Dative alternation and planning scope in spoken language: A corpus study on effects of verb bias in VO and OV clauses of Dutch. Lingua, 165, 92-108.

Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus, & Hagoort, Peter (2013). Syntactic priming and the lexical boost effect during sentence production and sentence comprehension: An fMRI study. Brain and Language, 124, 174-183.

Kempen, Gerard; Olsthoorn, Nomi, & Sprenger, Simone (2012). Grammatical workspace sharing during language production and language comprehension: Evidence from grammatical multitasking. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27, 345-380.

Snijders, Tineke M.; Vosse, Theo; Kempen, Gerard; Van Berkum Jos J.A.; Petersson, Karl Magnus, & Hagoort, Peter (2009). Retrieval and unification of syntactic structure in sentence comprehension: an fMRI study using word-category ambiguity. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 1493-1503.

Sprenger, Simone A., Levelt, Willem J.M., & Kempen, Gerard (2006). Lexical access during the production of idiomatic phrases. Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 161-184.

Van Wijk, Carel, & Kempen, Gerard (1987). A dual system for producing self-repairs in spontaneous speech: evidence from experimentally elicited corrections. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 403-440.

Kempen, Gerard, & Huijbers, Pieter (1983). The lexicalization process in sentence production and naming: indirect election of words. Cognition, 14, 185-209.

Kempen, G. (1976). Syntactic constructions as retrieval plans. British Journal of Psychology, 67, 149-160.

1.2 Corpus-linguistic studies

1.2.1 Word order

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2019). Mutual attraction between high-frequency verbs and clause types with finite verbs in early positions: Corpus evidence from spoken English, Dutch, and German. Language, cognition, and Neuroscience, 34, 1140-1151.

Kempen, Gerard & Harbusch, Karin (2018). A competitive mechanism selecting verb-second versus verb-final word order in causative and argumentative clauses of spoken Dutch: A corpus-linguistic study. Language Sciences, 69, 30-42.

Kuiper, Koenraad; Bimesl, Neda; Kempen, Gerard, & Ogino, Masayoshi (2017). Initial vs. non-initial placement of agent constructions in spoken clauses: A corpus-based study of language production under time pressure. Language Sciences, 64, 16-33.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2017). Easy accessibility and retrievability of high- frequent verbs as a production-based factor modulating the speed of historical SOV-to-SVO word order changes. In Abstracts of the 30th CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing. Cambridge MA: MIT, March/April 2017.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2017). Frequential test of (S)OV as unmarked word order in Dutch and German clauses: A serendipitous corpus-linguistic experiment. In Reckman, Hilke; Cheng, Lisa L.S.; Hijzelendoorn, Maarten, & Sybesma, Rint (Eds.). Crossroads Semantics. Computation, experiment and grammar. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2016). Verb-second word order after German weil ‘because’: Psycholinguistic theory from corpus-linguistic data. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 1(1): 3. 1–32, DOI:

Kempen, Gerard, & Karin Harbusch (2008). Comparing linguistic judgments and corpus frequencies as windows on grammatical competence: A study of argument linearization in German clauses. In Steube, Anita (Ed.), The Discourse Potential of Underspecified Structures. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2005). The relationship between grammaticality ratings and corpus frequencies: A case study into word order variability in the midfield of German clauses. In Kepser, Stephan & Reis, Marga (Eds.), Linguistic Evidence — Empirical, Theoretical, and Computational Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2004). A corpus study into word order variation in German subordinate clauses: Animacy affects linearization independently of grammatical function assignment. In Pechmann, Thomas & Habel, Christoph (Eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to language production. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2003). Word order scrambling as a consequence of incremental sentence production. In Härtl, Holden, & Tappe, Heike (Eds.), Mediating between concepts and grammar. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

1.2.2 Coordination and coordinate ellipsis

Harbusch, K., & Kempen, G. (2009). Clausal coordinate ellipsis and its varieties in spoken German: A study with the TüBa-D/S Treebank of the VERBMOBIL corpus. In Passarotti, M. ; Przepiórkowski, A.; Raynaud S. & Van Eynde, F. (Eds.), Proceedings of the The Eighth International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (pp. 83-94). Milan: EDUCatt.

Harbusch, Karin, & Gerard Kempen (2007). Clausal coordinate ellipsis in German: The TIGER treebank as a source of evidence. In Nivre, Joakim; Kaalep, Heiki-Jaan; Muischnek, Kadri, & Koit, Mare (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics (NODALIDA 2007, Tartu, Estonia, May 2007).

1.3 Theoretical studies

Kempen, Gerard (2014). Prolegomena to a neurocomputational architecture for human grammatical encoding and decoding. Neuroinformatics, 12, 111-142.

Vosse, Theo, & Kempen, Gerard (2009). In defense of competition during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 38, 1-9.

Kempen, Gerard (2000). Could grammatical encoding and grammatical decoding be subserved by the same processing module? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 38-39.

Kempen, Gerard, & Hoenkamp, Eduard (1982). Incremental sentence generation: implications for the structure of a syntactic processor. In Horecky, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 1982), Prague, July 1982. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Kempen, G. (1977). Building a psychologically plausible sentence generator. In Seuren, P. (Ed.), Symposium on semantic Theory. Nijmegen: Katholieke Universiteit, (Grammarij 9).

Kempen, G. (1977). Conceptualizing and formulating in sentence production. In Rosenberg, S. (Ed.), Sentence production: Developments in research and theory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

2. Performance Grammar

2.1 Formalism

Kempen, Gerard (2009). Clausal coordination and coordinate ellipsis in a model of the speaker. Linguistics, 47, 653-696.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2003). Dutch and German verb constructions in Performance Grammar. In Seuren, Pieter A.M., & Kempen, Gerard (Eds.), Verb constructions in German and Dutch. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Kempen, Gerard, & Harbusch, Karin (2002). Performance Grammar: A declarative definition. In Nijholt, Anton; Theune, Mariët, & Hondorp, Hendri. (Eds.), Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands 2001. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Harbusch, Karin, & Kempen, Gerard (2002). A quantitative model of word order and movement in English, Dutch and German complement constructions. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-2002), Taipei (Taiwan). San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Harbusch, Karin, & Kempen, Gerard (2000). Complexity of linear order computation in Performance Grammar, TAG and HPSG. In Proceedings of Fifth International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms (TAG+5), Université Paris 7, May 2000.

De Smedt, Koenraad, & Kempen, Gerard (1996). Discontinuous constituency in Segment Grammar. In Bunt, Harry & van Horck, Arthur (Eds.), Discontinuous Constituency. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

De Smedt, Koenraad, & Kempen, Gerard (1991). Segment Grammar: a formalism for incremental sentence generation. In Paris, C.L., Swartout, W.R. & Mann, W.C. (Eds.) Natural language generation and computational linguistics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Kempen, Gerard (1987). A framework for incremental syntactic tree formation. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI’87), Milan.

2.2 Implementations of Performance Grammar

2.2.1 Connectionist Parsing

Vosse, Theo, & Kempen, Gerard (2009). The Unification Space implemented as a localist neural net: Predictions and error-tolerance in a constraint-based parser. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 3, 331-346.

Vosse, Theo, & Kempen, Gerard (2008). Parsing verb-final clauses in German: Garden- path and ERP effects modeled by a parallel dynamic parser. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (Washington DC, July 2008). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Vosse, Theo, & Kempen, Gerard (2000). Syntactic structure assembly in human parsing: A computational model based on competitive inhibition and a lexicalist grammar. Cognition, 75, 105-143.

Vosse, Theo, & Kempen, Gerard (1991). A hybrid model of human sentence processing: parsing rightbranching, center-embedded and cross-serial dependencies. In M. Tomita (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Parsing Technologies (IWPT1991, Cancun, Mexico, February 1991).

Kempen, Gerard, & Vosse, Theo (1989). Incremental syntactic tree formation in human sentence processing: a cognitive architecture based on activation decay and simulated annealing. Connection Science, 1, 273-290.

2.3.2 Sentence Generation

Harbusch, Karin, & Kempen, Gerard (2009). Generating clausal coordinate ellipsis multilingually:  A uniform approach based on postediting. In Proceedings of the Twelfth European Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Athens, March 2009.

Harbusch, Karin, Gerard Kempen, Camiel van Breugel, & Ulrich Koch (2006).  A generation-oriented workbench for Performance Grammar: Capturing linear order variability in German and Dutch. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Natural Language Generation Conference (Sydney, Australia, July 2006).

Harbusch, Karin, & Kempen, Gerard (2006). ELLEIPO: A module that computes coordinative ellipsis for language generators that don’t. In EACL-2006: 11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Trento, Italy; April 2006). [Conference Companion.

Kempen, Gerard, & Hoenkamp, Eduard (1987). An incremental procedural grammar for sentence formulation. Cognitive Science, 11, 201-258.

Van Wijk, Carel, & Kempen, Gerard (1985). From sentence structure to intonation contour. An algorithm for computing pitch contours on the basis of sentence accents and syntactic structure. In Müller, B.S. (Ed.), Sprachsynthese. Hildesheim: Olms.

3 Applications of Performance Grammar to grammar and writing instruction

Harbusch, Karin & Kempen, Gerard (2011). Automatic online writing support for L2 learners of German through output monitoring by a natural-language paraphrase generator. In Levy, Michael; Blin, Françoise; Bradin Siskin, Claire, & Takeuchi, Osamu (Eds.). WorldCALL: International Perspectives on Computer-Assisted Language Learning. New York NY: Routledge.

Harbusch, Karin; van Breugel, Camiel; Koch, Ulrich, & Kempen, Gerard (2007). Interactive sentence combining and paraphrasing in support of integrated writing and grammar instruction: A new application area for natural language sentence generators. In Stephan Busemann (Ed.), Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG07, Dagstuhl, Germany, June 2007).

Kempen, Gerard (2004). Interactive visualization of syntactic structure assembly for grammar-intensive first- and second-language instruction. In Delmonte, R., Delcloque, Ph., & Tonelli, S. (Eds.), Proceedings of InSTIL/ICALL2004 Symposium on NLP and speech technologies in advanced language learning systems (Venice, Italy, June 2004).

Kempen, Gerard (1999). Visual Grammar: Multimedia for grammar and spelling instruction in primary education. In Cameron, K.C. (Ed.). CALL: Media, design, and applications. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Kempen, Gerard, & Dijkstra, Alice (1994). Toward an integrated system for grammar, writing and spelling instruction. In Appelo, L. , & de Jong, F.M.G. (Eds.) Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Proceedings of the Seventh Twente Workshop on Language Technology. Enschede: University of Twente.

Pijls, Fieny; Daelemans, Walter, & Gerard Kempen (1987). Artificial Intelligence tools for grammar and spelling instruction. Instructional Science, 16, 319-336.

Human Grammatical Coding: Research Topics